A Pairwise Fair and Community-preserving Approach to k-Center Clustering

Part of Proceedings of the International Conference on Machine Learning 1 pre-proceedings (ICML 2020)

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Authors

Brian Brubach, Darshan Chakrabarti, John Dickerson, Samir Khuller, Aravind Srinivasan, Leonidas Tsepenekas

Abstract

<p>Clustering is a foundational problem in machine learning with numerous applications. As machine learning increases in ubiquity as a backend for automated systems, concerns about fairness arise. Much of the current literature on fairness deals with discrimination against protected classes in supervised learning (group fairness). We define a different notion of fair clustering wherein the probability that two points (or a community of points) become separated is bounded by an increasing function of their pairwise distance (or community diameter). We capture the situation where data points represent people who gain some benefit from being clustered together. Unfairness arises when certain points are deterministically separated, either arbitrarily or by someone who intends to harm them as in the case of gerrymandering election districts. In response, we formally define two new types of fairness in the clustering setting, pairwise fairness and community preservation. To explore the practicality of our fairness goals, we devise an approach for extending existing k-center algorithms to satisfy these fairness constraints. In doing so, we show that reasonable approximations can be achieved while maintaining fairness. In experiments, we compare the effectiveness of our approach to classical k-center algorithms/heuristics and explore the tradeoff between optimal clustering and fairness.</p>