Shion Takeno, Hitoshi Fukuoka, Yuhki Tsukada, Toshiyuki Koyama, Motoki Shiga, Ichiro Takeuchi, Masayuki Karasuyama
In a standard setting of Bayesian optimization (BO), the objective function evaluation is assumed to be highly expensive. Multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (MFBO) accelerates BO by incorporating lower fidelity observations available with a lower sampling cost. In this paper, we focus on the information-based approach, which is a popular and empirically successful approach in BO. For MFBO, however, existing information-based methods are plagued by difficulty in estimating the information gain. We propose an approach based on max-value entropy search (MES), which greatly facilitates computations by considering the entropy of the optimal function value instead of the optimal input point. We show that, in our multi-fidelity MES (MF-MES), most of additional computations, compared with usual MES, is reduced to analytical computations. Although an additional numerical integration is necessary for the information across different fidelities, this is only in one dimensional space, which can be performed efficiently and accurately. Further, we also propose parallelization of MF-MES. Since there exist a variety of different sampling costs, queries typically occur asynchronously in MFBO. We show that similar simple computations can be derived for asynchronous parallel MFBO. We demonstrate effectiveness of our approach by using benchmark datasets and a real-world application to materials science data.